Hypoglycemia is a serious condition for newborn baby. By observing the signs and symptoms of hypoglycemia in newborn anyone can identify the disease. Hypoglycemia occurs when blood sugar (glucose) levels are too low. Glucose is the main energy source. Glucose is the main source of fuel for the brain and body. The amount of sugar may vary in the blood of a newborn baby due to several reasons. It can cause problems in several situations such as shaking, blue skin and shortness of breath and feeding problems.
What are the hypoglycemia in newborn causes?
Hypoglycemia can be caused by conditions such as:
- Malnutrition for the mother during pregnancy
- Making too much insulin because maternal diabetes is not poorly controlled
- Maternal and baby blood type incompatibility (severe neonatal hemolytic disease)
- Other causes include high levels of insulin in the baby’s blood, such as pancreatic tumors
- Birth defects
- Congenital metabolic disease or hormone deficiency. Some of these run in families.
- Not enough oxygen at birth (choking at birth)
- Liver diseases
- Infections (some of the mother’s medications may be taken for diabetes at birth, such as sulfonylureas may cause sepsis or other serious infections)
Which newborns are at risk for hypoglycemia?
Children who are more likely to have hypoglycemia include:
- Babies born to mothers with diabetes
- Children who are small or growth-restricted for gestational age
- Premature babies, especially those with low birth weight
- Babies born under significant stress
- Babies with mothers are treated with certain medications such as turbutalin
- Babies who grow up for their gestational age
What are the signs and symptoms of hypoglycemia in newborn or neonatal ?
Symptoms of low blood sugar may not be easy to see in newborns. The most common symptoms include:
- Blue color of the skin and lips (cyanosis) or pale
- Shortness of breath (apnea) or rapid breathing
- Low body temperature (hypothermia)
- Floppy muscle (poor muscle tone)
- Show no interest in eating
- Lack of Movement and lack of energy (laziness)
- May Convulsions occur
- Weak or high-pitch cry for maximum babies
Symptoms of hypoglycemia may seem similar to other health conditions. Make sure your child sees their healthcare provider for a diagnosis.
How is hypoglycemia diagnosed in newborns?
A simple blood test for blood glucose levels can identify or diagnose the disease .
How is hypoglycemia in a newborn treated or treatment of hypoglycemia in newborn ?
Treatment of this disease will depend on the baby’s gestational age and overall health. Treatment starts with rapid supply of glucose. Treatment includes providing the child with a fast-acting source of glucose. It can be as simple as a glucose and water mixture or as an initial feeding formula. Or the baby may need glucose through an IV (intravenous) line. The baby’s blood glucose level is checked after treatment to monitor if hypoglycemia recurs.
What are the possible complications of hypoglycemia in the newborn?
Blood glucose is required for the brain to properly functioning. Without sufficient glucose, the brain’s ability to function can be hampered. The brain doesn’t work properly .Severe or chronic hypoglycemia may result in seizures and severe brain injury.
What to do to prevent my newborn’s hypoglycemia?
In many cases, the newborn baby may not have a way to prevent or cure hypoglycemia. For a child with a risk factor, doctor or child specialist need to carefully monitor .Doctor should observe the signs & symptoms and begin treatment as soon as possible. The Mothers who are suffered with diabetes need to keep their blood glucose levels under control or normal during pregnancy. This can help to reduce their baby’s risk from affecting the disease .
When should I call my child’s doctor ?
Call baby’s doctor immediately if the signs arise .Don’t wasting time and right away or get medical attention right away if you see any signs of low blood sugar in your baby. Give your child formula or a mixture of glucose and water if advised.
Key points about newborn hypoglycemia
- Hypoglycemia is a condition in which blood glucose levels are lower than normal.
- A baby is at risk if their mother has diabetes, is prematurely old or older.
- If your child has symptoms of hypoglycemia, give him formula or a mixture of glucose and water.
- Tips to help you get the most out of meeting your child’s doctor
- Find out the reason for the visit and what you want to happen.
- Before you visit, write down the questions you want to answer.
- At the inspection, enter the name of a new diagnosis, and the name of any new medication, treatment, or test. Also write down any new instructions your provider gives you for your child.
Learn why a new drug or treatment is prescribed and how it will help your child. Find out what the side effects are.
Ask if your child’s condition can be treated in other ways.
Learn why a test or procedure is recommended and what the results might mean.
Find out what to expect if your child does not take medication or do tests or procedures.
If your child has a follow-up appointment, write down the date, time and purpose of that visit.
Learn how you can contact your child’s provider after office hours. This is important if your child is sick and you have questions or need advice.
The newborn baby also affected by another type of hypoglycemia. This condition is called isogenic neonatal-hypoglycemia.
Symptoms of isogenic neonatal hypoglycemia
The following features are indicative of isogenic neonatal-hypoglycemia:
It may be that isogenic neonatal hypoglycemia may be present in the patient’s body even if there are no physical symptoms.
Reasons of isogenic neonatal hypoglycemia
The most common reason of isogenic neonatal hypoglycemia are:
- Lack of intestines
- Diseases of carbohydrate metabolism
- Diseases of amino acid metabolism
- Diseases of fatty acid metabolism
- Other causes of isogenic neonatal hypoglycemia
- The following are the less common causes of isogenic neonatal hypoglycemia:
- Growth hormone deficiency
- Lack of glucose
- Cortisol deficiency
- ACTH response
- Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome
- Islet cell degeneration syndrome
- Glycogen storage disease type I
- fructose intolerance
- Glycogen synthase deficiency
- Lack of fructose-16-diphosphatase
- Maple syrup urinary tract disease
- propionic acidemia
- Methylamic acidemia
- Lack of 3-hydroxy-3-methylgluteryl coa lyase
- Lack of moderate chain Acyl CoA dehydrogenase
- Lack of long chain Acyl CoA dehydrogenase
Prevention of isogenic neonatal hypoglycemia
Yes, it may be possible to prevent itrogenic neonatal hypoglycemia. The following steps can be taken to prevent this disease:
Early breastfeeding helps prevent hypoglycemia
Incidence of isogenic neonatal hypoglycemia
The highest number of patients with isogenic neonatal hypoglycemia is in the following age group:
- At birth
- The disease is more common in people of that sex
- People of either sex can have isogenic neonatal-hypoglycemia
- Experiments to detect isogenic neonatal-hypoglycemia
The following tests are performed to diagnose isogenic neonatal hypoglycemia:
Measuring blood glucose levels: Measuring plasma and serum levels
MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging): To rule out hypoglycemia and neurologic Siegelli in neoplasms
Complications that can result from isogenic neonatal hypoglycemia if left untreated
Yes, physical complications can occur if untreated neonatal-hypoglycemia is not treated.
- Brain damage
- Can be fatal
Self-care in the case of isogenic neonatal hypoglycemia
The following is a list of changes that may be helpful in self-care or lifestyle in the treatment or management of isogenic neonatal hypoglycemia:
Early nipple: Helps prevent neonatal-hypoglycemia
During the treatment of isogenic neonatal-hypoglycemia
The duration of treatment varies from patient to patient.
If treated appropriately under the supervision of a specialist doctor , the time limit for control of isogenic neonatal hypoglycemia one to three months.