Here we will learn everything about dengue fever, what is dengue fever, what is germs, how is dengue spread, symptoms of dengue disease or fever, dengue diagnosis test, treatment, dengue prevention measures etc.
What is dengue fever?
Dengue or dengue fever is a type of fever caused by a virus called dengue, which is spread by mosquitoes. Dengue is commonly known as ‘fractured fever’.
There are three types of mosquitoes in our environment, Anopheles, Aedes and Culex. Each mosquito has a male and female part. The disease is mainly spread by the female Aedes mosquito.
The disease is spread by the bite of an infected Aedes mosquito. In some cases, the disease can turn into life-threatening dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) if left unchecked.
- Bleeding occurs
- Anemia occurs in the blood and plasma is secreted
Dengue virus is a positive single-stranded RNA virus. Some viruses, such as the Japanese encephalitis virus and the Zika virus, belong to the same family that belongs to it.
The structure of the dengue virus usually consists of the genetic material inside, the outer layer and the part that comes out of the outer layer, which helps the virus to sit on or attach to a cell.
There are three parts to this virus –
- Genetic Material – This is a positive single-stranded RNA virus inside the virus, which is the main component of the virus.
- Coating proteins – The coating proteins of this virus are prM / M protein and capsid protein C, which binds or covers the RNA inside the virus.
- External Attachment Protein – This virus helps us to sit on our cells when it invades E protein, which is as important a protein as any other virus.
Types of dengue virus
There are four common types of dengue virus or serotype:
- DENV 1
Here DEN means dengue and V means virus
Carriers of the dengue virus
The dengue virus usually carries the female Aedes mosquito, whose scientific name is Aedes aegypti.
This mosquito is easily recognizable, it has white and black striped spots on its body, which is why it is also called Tiger Mosquito.
How dengue spreads ?
A person infected with dengue is first bitten by a female Aedes mosquito and the dengue virus is transmitted to the mosquito’s body.This time the mosquito bites a healthy person.
A healthy person may not notice anything like this for some time after the bite, but after a while the symptoms of dengue fever appear. The time after the bite is called incubation period.
In this way, dengue is transmitted from a person infected with a mosquito to a healthy person.
Once a person is infected with dengue, he or she has a better chance of contracting dengue again. However, if a person is infected with any one of the four viruses, he or she will not be infected with the same virus again.
In this case, the symptoms of the second infection are more severe and severe than the first.
What does the dengue virus do to the patient’s body?
Our body is made up of cells and the cell membrane usually allows certain things (which do us no special harm) to come in and out of the cell. That is why the cell membrane is semi-permeable. Because the cell membrane is smooth, no substance can sit on the cell membrane from outside
But in some cases, there is a thorn-like part called the receptor on the outside of the cell membrane, which is a special kind of shape, which can only fit an object of a certain size from the outside, just like a lock key, a key to a specific lock, and with that key The lock will open. When a protein sits in the sheath of a receptor, the size of the receptor changes and the protein is absorbed into the cell.
Now we will know how the virus enters our body.
After being bitten by the Aedes mosquito, which carries the dengue virus, the virus comes to our skin cells (human skin cells). This is because the cell is the main site of attack for most viruses.
- The virus contains a thorn-like attachment protein called E protein, but it cannot sit on the smooth surface of the cell membrane, so it sits on the cell’s receptors, and when encapsulated in the receptors on skin cells, the dengue virus can enter cells.
- B. Once inside the cell, the virus folds the lining of the cell membrane to form endosomes, which normally use cell endosomes to receive large molecules and particles from outside the cell, to receive nutrients.
- C. The virus inside the endosome then breaks down the endosome and lining to bring the RNA inside the cell, and the viral RNA then hijacks the host cell or its equipment to make its own copy.
- D. That RNA uses the cell’s ribosomes to make many copies of itself, such as xeroxes, and from that many dengue viruses are created.
- E. The innumerable viruses that form inside the cell then break out of the cell and come out, after which the virus is transmitted from the skin to the new person through mosquito bites.
Symptoms of dengue fever
A mosquito that carries the dengue virus has a maximum interval of 3 to 14 days from the time it bites a healthy person until the onset of dengue symptoms. This period is called the incubation period until symptoms of dengue fever appear.
- Pain in the eyeball or behind the eyes
- High fever and headache.
- Severe pain in muscles and joints.
- Feeling sick
- Pain in the body, reddening of the skin
- In some cases, rashes or rashes appear on the skin
- Fatigue or fatigue
- Problems with the lungs, liver and heart.
- Sore throat or sore throat.
- Pain in lower abdomen and whole body.
In most cases the infected person recovers within a week or so. In certain cases, if the symptoms get worse, it can be fatal. In that case it is necessary to start treatment as soon as possible.
Dengue Diagnosis Test
Dengue fever is very difficult to diagnose because its symptoms can easily be confused with other diseases such as chikungunya, Zika virus, malaria and typhoid fever.
Some mixed laboratory tests are usually used to diagnose dengue fever because the body’s resistance to the virus is dynamic and complex. Notable among the tests are –
Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) – PCR tests that check for the presence of viruses are generally considered the most reliable means of diagnosis. This test can be used to diagnose dengue fever up to 7 days after the onset of symptoms and can be used to determine which of the four serotypes of the dengue virus is causing the infection.
Antibody Test, IgM and IgG – This test is performed to detect IgM and IgG antibodies when a person comes in contact with the virus. This test is most effective after the person has been exposed to the virus for at least 4 days.
Complete blood count – This test detects blood platelet count, hemoglobin depletion count, red blood cell (RBC) count (evidence of anemia), total white blood cell count, etc. at the end of illness. Is. All of which occur with blood loss as a result of severe dengue fever
Basic metabolic panel (BMP) – This test is performed to test for kidney function and to look for evidence of dehydration, which can lead to serious dengue illness.
Most patients with dengue fever usually get better on their own within 5 to 10 days. Even without any treatment. The dengue patients must obey the instructions of Doctor. So that there is no serious dengue complication. Dengue fever is actually a confusing disease, so it is usually treated with symptoms.
- There is no specific antiviral drug for dengue.
- Get enough rest until you are completely well.
- The patient should drink enough water, soft drinks, coconut water and other liquids to stay hydrated.
- If you can’t eat, saline can be given as needed as an alternative.
- Aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid), aspirin-containing drugs and other nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (eg ibuprofen) should be avoided for their anticoagulant properties. This increases the risk of bleeding .
Ways to prevent dengue
In late 2015 and early 2016, Sanofi Pastur’s first dengue vaccine, Dengvaxia (CYD-TDV), was registered in several countries for use by people aged 9-45. At present, however, the key to controlling or preventing dengue fever is to prevent the spread of the Aedes mosquito and to prevent it from biting.
Aedes is a mosquito that lays its eggs in clear, frozen water. They do not like dirty smelly drain water. Therefore, in order to prevent dengue, the places suitable for laying Aedes mosquitoes should be kept clean and at the same time necessary steps should be taken to kill the mosquitoes.
- Social remedies
Ponds, sewers and bushes should be kept as clean as possible next to the house
In some cases DDT needs to be sprayed
People around us need to be aware of dengue
Larvae-eating fish such as guppies and squirrels should be left in frozen water
- Home remedies
Garbage accumulation in the house should be cleaned and dirty should be prevented as much as possible
Every corner of the house should be thoroughly cleaned to prevent dengue mosquito outbreak. If necessary, clean the damp corner and control the mosquito with mosquito spray
Since the Aedes mosquito lays its eggs in objects where clear water accumulates. So water should be discarded from vases, unused containers, coconut shells, discarded tires etc.
Water stored in the bathroom or anywhere in the house should not be left for long. Even under aquariums, refrigerators or air conditioners, old water should not be frozen for long
Where there must be water such as water tanks, water containers etc. should be well covered.
Nets or nets should be installed on the doors and windows of the house.
Mosquito bites should be used day and night to avoid mosquito bites.
Mosquito repellent sprays, coils & electric mats etc. may be used
In some cases, creams can be used to control mosquitoes
Avoid mosquito bites by applying cream with full sleeves.
Read hand-foot-covered clothes to avoid mosquito bites.
To prevent the spread of the disease, always keep dengue patients under mosquito nets and seek medical help as soon as possible.
Dengue patients must be kept under mosquito nets at all times so that no mosquito bites.